As part of the Empire, Australian colonies offered troops to fight the local farmers, or Boers, in South Africa. It is believed that 20,000 Australians fought in the war.
Australians served mostly in mounted units, often known as "Mounted Rifles", "Bushmen" or "Imperial Bushmen". They fought in both the British counter-offensive of 1900 and in the long, weary guerrilla phases of the war lasting until 1902.
- Six hundred Australians died during the Boer War, about half from disease.
- Five Australians received the VC in South Africa and many others received other decorations.